Volume 3 Issue 1 Pages 38-54
First Published: October 8, 2020
The roles of experts and policy-makers vary between countries and policy sectors. In this article, I first compare policy-making during the COVID-19 pandemic in three countries; Sweden, USA, and Japan. Secondly, I consider the risks that arise from the countries’ policy-making environment. And finally, I make three recommendations that would help public health experts in Japan deal with uncertainty and normative ambiguity carefully and prevent the politicization amid pandemics. This article demonstrates the necessity for further discussion and offers a blueprint for developing principles and legal systems.