Evaluation: Continuing Medical Education Courses

Professional Continuing Medical Education by Center for Biomedical Ethics and Law (CBEL)

 

Unedited student comments after the courses are over.

 

CBEL has four Continuing Medical Education Courses: 1) Basic Course (full 3 days), 2) Advanced Research Ethics Course (full 2-days), 3) Advanced Clinical Ethics Course (full 3 days), 4) Advanced Public Health Ethics Course (full 2 days).

 

Course Evaluation

Students taking the course are asked to respond to the questionnaire upon the completion of the course. No name entered.

 

  1. I disagree completely.
  2. I disagree.
  3. I agree.
  4. I agree completely.

 

Choose one answer from the above. The maximum score is 4.0.

 

 

Course Basic

Course

Research

Ethics

Clinical Ethics Public Health Ethics
The contents were well organized. 3.66 3.53 3.87 3.41
The technical terms were easy to understand. 3.47 3.53 3.73 3.06
The contents were interesting. 3.76 3.87 3.93 3.53
The objectives of the seminar were clear. 3.76 3.60 3.93 3.35
The course was helpful. 3.63 3.73 3.87 3.29
The course accommodated the students’ knowledge and abilities. 3.34 3.20 3.80  

3.13

 

I am satisfied with the seminar. 3.63 3.67 3.93 3.24
I deepened my understanding of biomedical ethics, research ethics, ethics consultation, and public health ethics (for each course). 3.47   3.50 3.80  

3.59

 

I developed more interest in biomedical ethics, research ethics, ethics consultation, and public health ethics (for each course). 3.70 3.69 3.53  

3.65

 

I developed confidence in handling ethical issues. 2.97   2.67 3.20 2.76
Mean 3.54 3.50 3.76 3.30

 

 


1) Basic Course

 

Lectures that were good and the reasons

 

  1. Introduction

-The research objective was easy to understand.

  1. Basics of Ethics

-I wanted to study philosophy again.

-I had the chance to study again the basics of ethics.

-I was able to understand the basics.

-I deepened my understanding because the cases that were referenced were easy to digest.

  1. Theory of Ethics

– Although I have almost no opportunity to study ethics as an academic discipline, I was able to tie it back to my own knowledge because the lectures helped me understand the thinking behind ethical practice. For this reason, the lectures were very worthwhile.

-They were clear (had many clear, specific examples) and good, especially since this was a discipline that I was not good at before.

-By revisiting medical ethics, I was able to organize my own knowledge and have a better understanding of how to approach actual issues related to medical ethics.

-The lectures explained contents that were hard to interpret in a clear manner only by reading books.

-I was able to deepen my understanding because the cases that were referenced were easy to digest.

-The lectures explained content that I was not good at in a clear manner and in a way that was easy to understand. They were also very entertaining.

  1. The Four Principles of Medical Ethics

-I was able to study the very basic approaches in a simple fashion.

-I was able to conceptualize medical and research ethics and organize my thinking.

-I was able to verify issues related to ethical principles.

-By revisiting medical ethics, I was able to organize my own knowledge and gain a better understanding of how to approach actual issues related to medical ethics.

-I deepened my understanding of the four principles.

  1. Law and Morals

-I acquired new knowledge and was able to organize it for myself.

-They were clear (had many clear, specific examples) and good, especially since this was a discipline that I was not good at before.

-Before, I had conflated law with ethics, so this class gave me the opportunity for clarification.

  1. Public Health Ethics

-I acquired new knowledge and was able to organize it for myself.

-I would like to use the knowledge in my field (sociology).

-I am looking toward clinical practice, so I learned a lot.

-I was able to study ethics from a wide perspective.

-It was extremely easy to visualize specific examples.

-I am now involved in smoking prevention.

-I learned about the breadth of public health.

-It was easy to understand the relationship with public policy. I found it very interesting.

  1. Research Ethics

-I acquired new knowledge and was able to organize it for myself.

-It helped tremendously in terms of my work.

-I am looking toward clinical practice, so I learned a lot.

-It gave me the opportunity to revisit research ethics.

-I understood the difference from clinical ethics.

-I understood the difference from clinical ethics and history.

-The historical explanation was easy to understand and drew my interest.

-I understood the connection between research and clinical practice.

  1. Clinical Ethics

-It gave me the opportunity to think about theory and actual practice.

-The contents touched on actual practice (clinical practice).

-Methods to make judgments and interpretations were explained specifically and with details not covered in the slides. They were easy to understand.

-The contents were simply interesting. It appeared difficult to handle the individual cases.

-By basing the exercises on actual cases, I discovered that the study group sessions we have held fell short of conducting studies in a truthful way. I would like to build on this learning and experience going forward.

-I learned that it is important to make judgments for each unique case.

-I learned about the Four Boxes Method by Jonsen et al.

-I was most interested in this field.

-By revisiting medical ethics, I was able to organize my own knowledge and gain a better understanding of how to approach actual issues related to medical ethics.

-The lectures were helpful because they were based on actual clinical practice.

-Through seminar exercises, I was able to understand how to use the Four Boxes Method by Jonsen et al. and follow up.

-I think I was able to gain a deep understanding of the field that drew my highest interest, as well as the Four Boxes Method by Jonsen et al.

-I can use it in real practice.

  1. Topics

-The topic of dignity drew my interest.

 

-Other topics you wanted to learn in the lectures

 

-I wanted to go through more case studies, but that is probably something for an advanced course.

-History is very important, so I would like to learn a bit more.

-Nothing in particular. Everything discussed was very interesting and enjoyable.

-More in-depth discussion of the topics in relation to the law.

-I would like to study issues in research ethics, so I am thinking of taking an advanced course.

-More discussions on the law.

-I wanted to learn more about perinatal periods and reproductive medicine.

-Court cases in ethics.

-How lawyers approach the issues, etc.

-Discussions of different cultures and religious views.

-Discussions of children.

-I wanted to learn more about ethics.

 

-Overall comments about the course

 

-Thanks to the instructor and the facilitator, I enjoyed the course. Thank you. I am now inspired to learn more in more depth, so I would really like to take an advanced course.

-Thank you for always being on time.

-Thank you for giving detailed lectures that began by covering the very basics.

-The contents of the seminar were very easy to understand. Through group discussions, I was able to share different values.

-I think the energy of the instructors will spread throughout the country!

-Thank you for very detailed lectures. I look forward to receiving your continued guidance.

-I learned a lot.

-I gained a new perspective by talking to people from various professions.

-There were many small group discussion (SGD) sessions, allowing me to exchange many opinions with other participants and bolster my learning. I enjoyed taking the course.

-It would have been great if we had extra 10 minutes for SGD because we could not discuss enough.

-The course was organized.

-The quality of the course contents was higher than I had expected. I enjoyed learning in this course. I extend my deepest gratitude to the instructor and staff. I also hope that our hospital’s staff can audit the course.

-I learned a lot. Thank you.

-The seminar was very thorough. I would very much like to take the advanced course.

 


2) Advanced Research Ethics Course

 

Lectures that were good and the reasons

 

  • What is research ethics?

-I was able to understand its history and background, and learned once again its importance.

-It was easy to understand as I did not know the basics.

  • It helped me tie my knowledge back to clinical research and research in general, and my understanding of them.
  • Ethics Guidelines in Research

-The comparison between the old and new governmental guidelines and the major revisions were helpful and easy to understand.

-The lecture was timely in light of the revisions made to the guidelines.

-I was able to streamline my thinking after listening to the lecture. I learned that it is impossible to learn on my own.

-The lecture covered what is emphasized in the guidelines and the history of its development. These were very easy to understand.

-I took this course because it is exactly what I wanted to learn. I was able to understand the terminology and meanings, as well as the main points of the guidelines.

-I was able to streamline my thinking and deepen my understanding as I frequently struggled with the definition of intervention and invasion.

-I was able to acknowledge once again the thinking behind intervention and invasion. I acquired information regarding the new guidelines.

  • Risk and Benefit Assessment (Lecture)

-It offered me training for better thinking as well as what to expect when initiating a discussion.

-This was the first time I had heard a lecture that focused exclusively on this topic.

-It was good to learn about in detail.

-I learned a lot from studying about assessment through a comparison of risk and benefits.

-It was ethical and easy to understand.

-I was able to verify the important points through the lecture and the seminar exercises.

  • Handling Personal Information and Human Samples

-It was good because the contents were updated each time to cover the most recent matters.

-It was very beneficial because it matched what is done at work.

-It was good because I studied how universities approach the samples and information handled by companies.

  • Compensation and Indemnity

– The meanings of loss, compensation, and indemnity were easy to understand, and the discussion was very ethical.

-This is a topic that I am not good at, so I wanted to hear more.

-It is something that I struggled with when I proposed my own research, so I benefited by gaining a clearer understanding.

-I was able to learn well the approaches to compensation and indemnity in research.

-Because it relates closely to my current work.

(8) Conflict of Interest

-I was able to clarify the things that I did not understand before, as well as what is new and what the issues are now.

-Because it relates closely to my current work.

(9) Support for Research Ethics

-This was very useful as the issues covered were very real and detailed.

-This was very helpful as I work at the committee office. I was able to understand The University of Tokyo’s framework very well, and will refer to what I learned today.

-There were many things I could relate to in terms of the struggles faced in actual operations.

-I got to study about clinical practice.

 

-Other topics you wanted to learn in the lectures

 

-It would have been better if we could have participated in more seminar exercises on risk benefit evaluation and risk minimization.

-Seminar exercise on protecting test subjects.

-Study through research cases other than research experiments on how to handle research proposals in nursing, which involves almost no invasion, and the way the screening committee should be established.

-Clinical trials (including anticancer agents).

-Registration of patient information with academic associations, and the relationship with approved facilities.

-Genetic information.

-Punitive measures that apply when detailed personal information is leaked and when conflicts of interest occur; what happens in terms of ethics and the law when presentations are made at an academic conference for various reasons, even if the research has no academic merit or has not gone through the ethics committee.

-Problems of research ethics that arise when industries and academia collaborate. For example, things to consider and issues that may arise when providing samples to a third party (private company).

-It would have been helpful if there had been a lecture focusing on ethical guidelines.

-Genome analysis research.

-The boundary (gray zone) between clinical practice (medical treatment) and research is becoming harder to understand because of developments in training and medical treatment that specializes in the administrative office. I would like to learn about how to handle this boundary.

-Risk management by coordinators in clinical trials.

 

Seminar Exercise: Risk and Benefit Assessment

 

-I was able to learn how to better identify risks in risk assessment. As for the benefits, I thought interests could be clarified by discerning those that serve the individual and those that benefit general society.

-I learned a lot.

-I experienced differences in thinking and perspectives through group discussions and presentations. It was extremely interesting. In terms of risks and benefits, I found the feedback on how to clarify them extremely worthwhile.

-It was good to experience how to think about risks and benefits as separate items and how to assess their significance.

-The seminar exercise itself was very worthwhile. I wanted to go through more exercises.

-I deepened my understanding of risk and benefit assessment through group tasks.

-There were issues that were common among the groups, but it was interesting to see the differences in focus given by each group. However, I thought that it would be hard to make a universal assessment…

-Risk and benefit assessment is an important aspect of screening. Because there is surprisingly no opportunity to discuss it one by one, it was a very good experience. Although I am a bit scared that perhaps, I myself conduct screening in a sloppy way… I think this is good training for the committee members.

-The content was practical, and I think I can apply what I learned in the class on the job. Thank you!

-It was interesting to hear opinions of people from different backgrounds. I was able to hear thoughts and opinions that were based on each person’s own expertise.

-I was able to hear different opinions from other members in SGD. It was meaningful.

 

-Seminar Exercise: Mock Ethics Committee

 

-In addition to ideas exchanged within small committees (groups), I was able to hear opinions of other groups in the mock committee meeting. I learned different perspectives in detail. A discussion was also held in the mock screening that lasted about 50 minutes. Here, I also experienced the difficulty of screening experimental research with no precedents. Although it was a seminar exercise, I felt that discussions held at the actual screening process must be extremely hard, given that 50 minutes is spent on screening one proposal.

-I found it difficult to determine how much of the research design should be reviewed.

-I was very nervous that perhaps stating my own opinion was out of place.

-I was able to visualize in detail how the committee runs because I had no exposure to it. It was refreshing.

-It also made me think a lot about the character and quality of the committee members. I think discussions should focus on the bigger picture, not trivial issues.

-It was a bit strange as I usually attend the committee meeting as a member of the administrative office.

-Overall, I learned a lot. This was an opportunity to have a mock experience and study the overall process from an ethical standpoint.

-I thought it was well-planned.

-It was very close to what is actually practiced. I learned a lot as I discovered many things that I was not aware of on my own.

-This kind of opportunity is rare. Thank you.

-It was very worthwhile.

-I wish we could have had more time for the discussion.

-It was very helpful to hear diverse opinions from various professions.

-It was pretty difficult, but interesting.

 

-Overall comments about the course

 

-Thank you for preparing and following through with the course.

-Some lectures were delivered a bit too fast, but I think the contents were very good. I learned a lot. Thank you for the two days.

-There was so much to learn. I was able to spend a very meaningful time.

-It was extremely good to participate. I would like to participate again if there is another opportunity.

-Thank you for your great work. Thank you.

-I would like to participate again next year.

-My mind was in disarray as I struggled to catch up with the discussions. Also, please offer a practicum course. Please make it available throughout Japan.

-I would like more opportunities for this kind of learning.

-I learned a lot and enjoyed it. Thank you.

-I am glad I participated. Thank you.

-I am glad I was able to participate in lectures and seminar exercises led by excellent instructors.

 


3) Advanced Clinical Ethics Course

 

Lectures that were good and the reasons

 

(1) Procedural Justice

-This is helpful for future practice.

-I am currently creating guidelines for my hospital for cases where treatment is withheld. I learned the ethical theory that backs this up.

-I learned what must be fulfilled at a minimum.

(2) Thinking about Autonomy

-I would like to revisit this and share it.

(3) Identifying and Analyzing Ethical Dilemmas

-It helped me organize my thinking.

-I learned the methods in detail.

-I fulfilled my objectives as I wanted to learn the methodology this time.

-I learned how to identify ethical issues in requests.

-The contents were systematized and easy to digest.

-I thought it was important to resolve ethical dilemmas through balancing differing opinions and coordinating.

-The ethical dilemma list, which is often seen, was helpful.

(4) Resolving Ethical Dilemmas: Coordinating

-I learned the methods in detail.

-I fulfilled my objectives, as I wanted to learn the methodology this time.

-The contents were systematized and easy to digest.

-I learned well the actual methods required.

-The points to consider in balancing differing opinions were good because they were easy to understand.

-How to balance differing opinions.

(5) Resolving Ethical Dilemmas: Resolution

-I learned the methods in detail.

-I fulfilled my objectives, as I wanted to learn the methodology this time.

-It was helpful when the discussion covered areas that require various skills.

-I was able to discover new perspectives and methods.

-I learned how to narrow down multiple options into one.

-I learned well the actual methods required.

-Method to resolve conflicts using narratives.

(6) Ethics of No Principles

-Learning this gave me a sense of comfort that I can excuse myself, while also giving me a strong sense of responsibility.

-It was interesting. I learned that I do not need to know the reasons without following principles.

(7) Deciding What to Recommend

-I learned the methods in detail.

-I learned the actual procedures and methods to present a counterargument.

-I leaned the steps to improve the recommendation details.

(8) Techniques to Improve Effectiveness

-I think I will be able to intervene well using the techniques.

-I thought I should use them.

(9) Legal Knowledge Required in Consultation for Ethics in Clinical Practice

-It was very interesting as the 10 cases (court trials) were very familiar. The lectures were also easy to understand, so I wanted to hear more.

-The legal knowledge was organized and easy to understand.

(10) Psychological Knowledge and Communication Skills

-I learned practical skills.

(11) Ethical Topics Seen On-site in Clinical Practice

-I was able to visualize how to take action in more detail.

-The case study helped me understand well.

-The case study is something that is experienced frequently in clinical practice. I also struggled with it before.

(12) Ethical Pitfalls Often Faced by Medical Practitioners

-Pitfalls are important to watch out for in any situation.

(13) Organizational Framework for Providing Consultation for Ethics in Clinical Practice

-I was able to visualize how to take action in more detail.

-Moves must be made to create an organizational framework, so I learned a lot.

-I think I am now able to provide immediate feedback when asked by someone. This is helpful.

-I learned how to create an actual organizational framework.

-Our hospital adopts a conference-type framework, but I learned the benefits of the consultation format delivered by a team. If possible, I would like to implement team activities.

 

-Other topics you wanted to learn in the lectures

-The lectures already covered so much ground that I cannot think of anything else.

-I would like to attend more lectures that cover the law.

-I hope the lectures covered the case of CBEL.

-For example, ethical issues when changing gears when an organ recipient enters the terminal stage or when a patient unfortunately struggles after surgery and lacks the ability to make decisions.

 

-Mock seminar exercises

 

  1. I disagree completely.
  2. I disagree.
  3. I agree.
  4. I agree completely.

 

Choose one answer from the above. The maximum score is 4.0.

 

 

Mock seminar exercise Evaluation score
The exercise was organized well. 3.80
The time was appropriately allocated to the exercise. 3.27
The contents of the exercise were interesting. 3.87
The objectives of the exercise were clear. 3.80
I think the exercise was helpful in terms of the actual practice of ethical consultation. 3.80
The exercise accommodated the students’ knowledge and abilities. 3.33
I am satisfied with the exercise. 3.80
I deepened my understanding of ethical consultation through the exercise. 3.87
I developed a stronger interest in the practice of ethical consultation through the exercise. 3.67
I developed confidence as a consultant in the ethics of clinical practice through the exercise. 3.40
Mean 3.66

 

 

-Compared with previous role-playing

 

Role-playing Evaluation score
It offered a sense of reality. 3.71
I was able to immerse myself in the role. 3.50
I participated thoroughly. 3.86
I participated actively. 3.79
I had fun participating. 3.42
I acknowledged the importance of communication skills. 3.64
I felt and understood that there are various ways of thinking (narratives) on-site. 3.71
The setting was detailed and appropriate. 3.57
Mean 3.65

 

 

-How will this mock exercise in consultation of ethics in clinical practice help you going forward?

 

-I need to handle more cases…I am now motivated.

-Consider the hospital ward staff’s work by learning questioning methods (how to offer information requested) and involving an outside party.

-The exercise was very realistic, so I thought it would be easy to apply the learning on-site, but it was difficult.

-I feel that I built a foundation for actual practice.

-The site is run by an actual consultant, so I can only retrieve partial information. How do I consolidate all of the information in this context? I am now more humble.

-I learned the importance of hearing about the situation from as many people as possible, as well as how they felt about it. At the same time, I was able to understand the limits in doing so.

-Through this training, I think I learned how to apply what I studied in actual practice.

-I think I know a bit more now about where to go for and how to collect information.

-I felt firsthand the difficulty of collecting information and grasping the situation holistically. I will apply what I learned going forward.

-I learned that a variety of narratives emerge in the background. This is helpful for future practice.

-From receiving requests to replying, following through and reflection, everything covered will be helpful.

-It was good to be able to practice before actually applying the learning.

-I learned the framework in detail. There are differences in the framework compared with what is in practice at my hospital. I was able to see that.

-I think I can now follow through with a backbone since we did our mock exercise upon learning the major issues in dilemmas and how to coordinate and resolve them—things I have previously done only routinely at work.

 

-Overall comments about the course

 

-Inevitably, I felt a power imbalance during group work, where opinions were dismissed. If a third party intervenes and points that out, perhaps that will benefit the person concerned. This happens in actual practice, so this may be an issue among the parties involved.

-The energy demonstrated by the instructors was strong. Thank you.

-The first day was hard, but through a series of short lectures and seminar exercises, I learned how to analyze cases with a consultant. I mostly grasped the essence of the course by the second day. On the third day, I was able to have a valuable experience.

I was grateful that the instructors answered individual questions. Thank you.

Thank you for everything. It must have been a lot of work to prepare the course. I will leverage what I gained from the training and work to spread ethical consulting in my hospital. The course was packed, but I think doing more is difficult. But then again, it is difficult because allocating more days will make it difficult to participate.

-I think it was good to have five role-playing sessions. As for the two consulting sessions, I think it was also good to have the second consulting session after reviewing the outcome of the first.

-It was a difficult schedule, but I learned a lot. I will recommend the course to the hospital staff. I extend my gratitude to the CBEL staff. Thank you.

-Thank you for planning and offering a very helpful seminar. It must have been a lot of work to prepare the course. Thank you for your hard work. I am extremely satisfied with the course as a whole. There seems to be a proposal to make it into 4 days, but for those who are working in clinical practice, it would make it difficult to participate because we would have to be away from work during that time.

-The contents were well thought out. I was impressed. I would like other staff at my hospital to attend.

-In the basics course, we focused on covering the foundations. Based on these, in this course, we learned the methods and approaches in detail that are applicable to clinical practice through seminar exercises. In order to integrate the methods we learned in the case studies as a routine in actual practice, I would like to digest them piecemeal on my own through daily consultation practice. Thank you.

 


4) Advanced Public Health Ethics Course

 

Lectures that were good and the reasons

 

  • Deontology and Utilitarianism Theory

-The lectures were very worthwhile. The topics covered were wide in breadth, and I was able to recall the details that were discussed.

-I learned about ethical theory in detail.

-It was helpful as I now find myself in a place to tackle issues.

-They were easy to understand.

-The lectures covered the basics in a manner that was easy to understand.

-The trolley problem was difficult to understand, but very memorable.

(2) Virtue Ethics and Ethics of Care

-Previously, I only thought of these topics from the narrow standpoints of nursing and elderly care, so I was able to learn about them in an academic trajectory.

-I did not know about them and found them interesting.

-The lectures covered the basics in a manner that was easy to understand.

-I wanted to hear about virtue ethics more.

(3) Metaethics

-Personally, I found the theories discussed in (1) and (2) difficult. While listening to theories (1) and (2), I was thinking about why “ethics” were systematized as a study and why that was necessary, so after listening to theory (3), I was able to accomplish that, and found it very interesting.

-The topics were fundamental. I am thankful to be exposed to this field. At first, this seems to be a detour, but now I think it is actually the shortest path to conflict resolution.

-This was my first lecture, and I learned about the basics of ethics.

-The lecture helped me understand topics that I had thought were elusive.

(4) Political Philosophy

-Because I wanted to learn about procedural justice as a resolution method for ethical issues.

-It was difficult, but I found it very interesting.

-The lectures were very worthwhile. The topics covered were wide in breadth, and I was able to recall the details that were discussed.

-I was able to organize my knowledge of contemporary political philosophy.

-For a personal reason. I never studied it (I cannot recall?). So I found it refreshing.

-It was easy to understand.

-This was my first lecture, and I learned about the basics of ethics.

-It raised my awareness on issues about which I was unfamiliar.

-I learned the larger framework of political philosophy, with which I had been unfamiliar.

-I felt that I was able to understand the topics as the lecture was based on timely issues.

-It was interesting as the lecture made political philosophy more familiar.

(5) Implementation and Public Health Ethics

-I thought it provided a framework to think about ethical issues in public health.

-I am thankful that the lecture gave summaries that can be helpful for application in actual practice!

-Understood by thinking about the distribution of vaccines and priorities given.

(6) Historical Background and Distribution of Medical Resources

-I was able to learn about rules on resource distribution and thought I could apply this to actual practice.

-Resource distribution is an issue that I sometimes confront.

-The distribution rules were very easy to understand.

(7) Health Disparity

-Because I wanted to learn about Rawls’ Theory of Justice. I was able to learn about it in detail.

-This gave me an occasion to reflect on various things, as I am involved in work that deals with policy.

-As I myself face “health” issues, this was interesting.

-I was able to raise my awareness again on issues that ought to consider public health. I also learned their relationship to ethics.

-The explanations were carefully delivered and easy to understand.

-I learned the connection between the details and thinking in ethics.

-Through the discussion on health disparity, I deepened my understanding that health is not based on a singular value.

-This is a very familiar issue. Also, I learned that difficulties faced by policy making.

-This is a disconcerting topic, but I thought it was important in terms of public health ethics.

(8) Conclusion

-It was well summarized.

 

-Other topics you wanted to learn in the lectures

 

– Pros and cons of health improvement and restriction of individual freedoms (e.g., prevention of infectious diseases).

-Public health ethics in times of disaster.

-Japan’s health insurance policy from the standpoint of public health ethics.

-How is public health ethics reflected in actual practice? I would like to hear what the national and local government staff has to say.

-I would like to learn more about public health activities and the law, and about public health ethics in times of disaster because there have been earthquakes and disasters in various locations.

-I wanted to learn in more detail about the organic collaboration between practice and academia.

-“To systematically understand the theory on public health ethics in this seminar.” I feel I achieved this objective.

 

-Overall comments about the course

 

-Thank you so much for covering very interesting topics and enjoyable lectures. Both days of the course were very fruitful.

-The lectures given by the instructors were easy to digest, and I feel that I was really able to learn a lot. They were enjoyable and easy to understand.

-The discussions on vaccines were very familiar and I enjoyed them.

-I do not see any areas for improvement in this program.

-It has been a while since I last took a course on CBEL. There were topics that I still remembered, and I participated with much enthusiasm. Thank you.

-I learned a lot. I was motivated more than ever by the energy demonstrated by the instructors. Thank you.

-I was able to focus for 2 days and attend lectures that covered important topics. The energy demonstrated by the instructors was strong. Thank you.

-The lectures were very high in quality in terms of the content, delivery, and progression. The amount of topics covered was also appropriate.

-The relationship among the instructors appeared to be good and fostered a positive atmosphere that I appreciated.

-All of topics that are otherwise probably very difficult were reformatted and discussed in a manner that was easy to digest and very interesting.

-Overall, I thank the staff and instructors for providing a great opportunity.

-Thank you. I was able to coherently understand things that I could not after I read Michael Sandel’s book.